In the great tradition of nibbling at the edges...

...and because I am still puzzling over why pairsum is grabbing so much RAM, let's contemplate floorSqrt. We're just calling it 2,000 times, and yet it's collectively taking up over six percent of the CPU time and five percent of allocation?!

Let's remind ourselves of floorSqrt (tweaked because I forgot that I'd memoized powers of two)

floorSqrt :: Integer -> Integer

floorSqrt 0 = 0
floorSqrt n = floorSqrt' (twoToThe ((1 + bitsIn n) `div` 2))
    where floorSqrt' x =
              let y = (x + n `div` x) `div` 2
              in if y >= x then x else floorSqrt' y


This is a special case of the Newton-Raphson method that was known to the ancient Greeks. We treat zero specially to avoid one of the gotchas of Newton-Raphson, but aside from that, this particular example is well-behaved, and has what they call quadratic convergence: once you're sufficiently close, each successive guess is good to twice as many digits as the one before. Our first guess is good to one bit, so the next is good to two bits, then four, then eight, etc. We're dealing with Xs in ranges up to a googol, or around 2330, which would me no more than nine iterations per value. Checking the profiling output, we see a total of 7,175 + 7,472 = 14,647 calls to floorSqrt', which is within our constraint, but darned close to it, so the inputs are tending to the high end of the range.

I kind of hate to cheat, but let's see what happens with

floorSqrt n = floorSqrt' $ (floor. sqrt . fromIntegral) n

[pause to compile, run, check profile output, and check... uh-oh.]

What happens is that it doesn't give the correct results; the output is not correct, which is weird. You'd think that would give you 52 good bits, and thus just need three iterations, but then, look at that termination condition. There has to be something about it that needs that first trial value to make it work, so you can't just plug in another, even better, guess. Taking the first value from the large input, the floorSqrt we've been using returns

10000010000100100100100001000000

while using the supposedly better first guess gives us

10000010000100100017503961350144

We could change the function to take ceil log2 (# bits in n / 52) iterations, but I think I should get back to dealing with memory usage and pairsum. (Even with that change you probably would end up flipping a coin for whether you got the floor or the ceiling of the square root of n.)

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